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IAWA
Feature#
Feature Description Feature Code Options
* not required for each feature
  Growth Rings  
 1 Growth ring boundaries distinct (definition)  
 2 Growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent (definition)  
  Vessels  
  Porosity  
 3 Wood ring-porous (definition)  
 4 Wood semi-ring-porous (definition)  
 5 Wood diffuse-porous (definition)  
  Vessel arangement  
 6 Vessels in tangential bands (definition)  
 7 Vessels in diagonal and / or radial pattern (definition)  
 8 Vessels in dendritic pattern (definition)  
  Vessel groupings  
 9 Vessels exclusively solitary (90% or more) (definition)  
 10 Vessels in radial multiples of 4 or more common (definition)  
 11 Vessel clusters common (definition)  
  Solitary vessel outline  
 12 Solitary vessel outline angular (definition)  
  Perforation plates  
 13 Simple perforation plates (definition)  
 14 Scalariform perforation plates (definition)  
 15 Scalariform perforation plates with <= 10 bars  
 16 Scalariform perforation plates with 10 - 20 bars  
 17 Scalariform perforation plates with 20 - 40 bars  
 18 Scalariform perforation plates with >= 40 bars  
 19 Reticulate, foraminate, and / or other types of multiple perforation plates (definition)  
  Intervessel pits: arrangement and size  
 20 Intervessel pits scalariform (definition)  
 21 Intervessel pits opposite (definition)  
 22 Intervessel pits alternate (definition)  
 23 Shape of alternate pits polygonal (definition)  
 24 Minute - <= 4 µm  
 25 Small - 4 - 7 µm  
 26 Medium - 7 - 10 µm  
 27 Large - >= 10 µm  
  Vestured pits (definition)  
 29 Vestured pits (definition)  
  Vessel - ray pitting  
 30 Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders; similar to intervessel pits in size and shape throughout the ray cell (definition)  
 31 Vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple: pits rounded or angular (definition)  
 32 Vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple: pits horizontal (scalariform, gash-like) to vertical (palisade) (definition)  
 33 Vessel-ray pits of two distinct sizes or types in the same ray cell (definition)  
 34 Vessel-ray pits unilaterally compound and coarse (over 10 µm)  
 35 Vessel-ray pits restricted to marginal rows (definition)  
  Helical thickenings (definition)  
 36 Helical thickenings in vessel elements present (definition)  
 37 Helical thickenings throughout body of vessel element (definition)  
 38 Helical thickenings only in vessel element tails  
 39 Helical thickenings only in narrower vessel elements  
  Tangential diameter of vessel lumina  
  Mean tangential diameter of vessel lumina (definition)  
 40 <= 50 µm  
 41 50 - 100 µm  
 42 100 - 200 µm  
 43 >= 200 µm  
 45 Vessels of two distinct diameter classes, wood not ring-porous (definition)  
  Vessels per square millimetre (definition)  
 46 <= 5 vessels per square millimetre  
 47 5 - 20 vessels per square millimetre  
 48 20 - 40 vessels per square millimetre  
 49 40 - 100 vessels per square millimetre  
 50 >= 100 vessels per square millimetre  
  Mean vessel element length  
 52 <= 350 µm  
 53 350 - 800 µm  
 54 >= 800 µm  
  Tyloses and deposits in vessels  
 56 Tyloses common (definition)  
 57 Tyloses sclerotic (definition)  
 58 Gums and other deposits in heartwood vessels (definition)  
  Wood vesselless (definition)  
 59 Wood vesselless (definition)  
  Tracheids and fibres  
 60 Vascular / vasicentric tracheids present (definition)  
  Ground tissue fibres  
 61 Fibres with simple to minutely bordered pits (definition)  
 62 Fibres with distinctly bordered pits (definition)  
 63 Fibre pits common in both radial and tangential walls (definition)  
 64 Helical thickenings in ground tissue fibres (definition)  
  Septate fibres and parenchyma-like fibre bands  
 65 Septate fibres present (definition)  
 66 Non-septate fibres present (definition)  
 67 Parenchyma-like fibre bands alternating with ordinary fibres (definition)  
  Fibre wall thickness  
 68 Fibres very thin-walled (definition)  
 69 Fibres thin- to thick-walled (definition)  
 70 Fibres very thick-walled (definition)  
  Mean fibre lengths  
 71 <= 900 µm  
 72 900-1600 µm  
 73 >= 1600 µm  
  Axial parenchyma  
 75 Axial parenchyma absent or extremely rare (definition)  
  Apotracheal axial parenchyma (definition)  
 76 Axial parenchyma diffuse (definition)  
 77 Axial parenchyma diffuse-in-aggregates (definition)  
  Paratracheal axial parenchyma (definition)  
 78 Axial parenchyma scanty paratracheal (definition)  
 79 Axial parenchyma vasicentric (definition)  
 80 Axial parenchyma aliform  
 81 Axial parenchyma lozenge-aliform (definition)  
 82 Axial parenchyma winged-aliform (definition)  
 83 Axial parenchyma confluent (definition)  
 84 Axial parenchyma unilateral paratracheal (definition)  
  Banded parenchyma (definition)  
 85 Axial parenchyma bands more than three cells wide (definition)  
 86 Axial parenchyma in narrow bands or lines up to three cells wide (definition)  
 87 Axial parenchyma reticulate (definition)  
 88 Axial parenchyma scalariform (definition)  
 89 Axial parenchyma in marginal or in seemingly marginal bands (definition)  
  Axial parenchyma cell type / strand length (definition)  
 90 Fusiform parenchyma cells (definition)  
 91 Two cells per parenchyma strand (definition)  
 92 Four (3-4) cells per parenchyma strand (definition)  
 93 Eight (5-8) cells per parenchyma strand  
 94 Over eight cells per parenchyma strand  
 95 Unlignified parenchyma (definition)  
  Rays  
  Ray width (definition)  
 96 Rays exclusively uniseriate  
 97 Ray width 1 to 3 cells  
 98 Larger rays commonly 4 - to 10 seriate  
 99 Larger rays commonly > 10-seriate (definition)  
 100 Rays with multiseriate portion(s) as wide as uniseriate portions (definition)  
  Aggregate rays (definition)  
 101 Aggregate rays (definition)  
  Ray height  
 102 Ray height > 1 mm  
  Rays of two distinct sizes (definition)  
 103 Rays of two distinct sizes (definition)  
  Rays: cellular composition (definition)  
 104 All ray cells procumbent (definition)  
 105 All ray cells upright and / or square (definition)  
 106 Body ray cells procumbent with one row of upright and / or square marginal cells (definition)  
 107 Body ray cells procumbent with mostly 2-4 rows of upright and / or square marginal cells  
 108 Body ray cells procumbent with over 4 rows of upright and / or square marginal cells  
 109 Rays with procumbent, square and upright cells mixed throughout the ray  
  Sheath cells (definition)  
 110 Sheath cells (definition)  
  Tile cells (definition)  
 111 Tile cells (definition)  
  Perforated ray cells (definition)  
 112 Perforated ray cells (definition)  
  Disjunctive ray parenchyma cell walls (definition)  
 113 Disjunctive ray parenchyma cell walls (definition)  
  Rays per millimetre (definition)  
 114 <= 4 / mm  
 115 4-12 / mm  
 116 >= 12 /mm  
  Wood rayless (definition)  
 117 Wood rayless (definition)  
  Storied structure (definition)  
 118 All rays storied (definition)  
 119 Low rays storied, high rays non-storied. (definition)  
 120 Axial parenchyma and / or vessel elements storied (definition)  
 121 Fibres storied (definition)  
 122 Rays and / or axial elements irregularly storied (definition)  
  Secretory elements and cambial variants  
  Oil and mucilage cells (definition)  
 124 Oil and / or mucilage cells associated with ray parenchyma (definition)  
 125 Oil and / or mucilage cells associated with axial parenchyma (definition)  
 126 Oil and / or mucilage cells present among fibres (definition)  
  Intercellular canals (definition)  
 127 Axial canals in long tangential lines (definition)  
 128 Axial canals in short tangential lines (definition)  
 129 Axial canals diffuse (definition)  
 130 Radial canals (definition)  
 131 Intercellular canals of traumatic origin (definition)  
  Tubes / tubules  
 132 Laticifers or tanniniferous tubes (definition)  
  Cambial variants  
 133 Included phloem, concentric (definition)  
 134 Included phloem, diffuse (definition)  
 135 Other cambial variants (definition)  
  Mineral inclusions  
  Prismatic crystals (definition)  
 136 Prismatic crystals present  
 137 Prismatic crystals in upright and / or square ray cells  
 138 Prismatic crystals in procumbent ray cells  
 139 Prismatic crystals in radial alignment in procumbent ray cells  
 140 Prismatic crystals in chambered upright and / or square ray cells (definition)  
 141 Prismatic crystals in non-chambered axial parenchyma cells  
 142 Prismatic crystals in chambered axial parenchyma cells  
 143 Prismatic crystals in fibres  
  Druses (definition)  
 144 Druses present  
 145 Druses in ray parenchyma cells  
 146 Druses in axial parenchyma cells  
 147 Druses in fibres  
 148 Druses in chambered cells  
  Other crystal types  
 149 Raphides (definition)  
 150 Acicular crystals (definition)  
 151 Styloids and / or elongate crystals (definition)  
 152 Crystals of other shapes (mostly small) (definition)  
 153 Crystal sand (definition)  
  Other diagnostic crystal features  
 154 More than one crystal of about the same size per cell or chamber (definition)  
 155 Two distinct sizes of crystals per cell or chamber  
 156 Crystals in enlarged cells (definition)  
 157 Crystals in tyloses  
 158 Cystoliths (definition)  
  Silica  
 159 Silica bodies present (definition)  
 160 Silica bodies in ray cells  
 161 Silica bodies in axial parenchyma cells  
 162 Silica bodies in fibres  
 163 Vitreous silica  
  Appendix -- Non-anatomical information  
  Geographical distribution  
 164 Europe and temperate Asia (Brazier and Franklin region 75)  
 165 Europe, excluding Mediterranean  
 166 Mediterranean including Northern Africa and Middle East  
 167 Temperate Asia (China), Japan, Russia  
 168 Central South Asia (Brazier and Franklin region 75)  
 169 India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka  
 170 Burma  
 171 Southeast Asia and Pacific (Brazier and Franklin region 76)  
 172 Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia (Indochina)  
 173 Indomalesia: Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei, Papua, New Guinea, and Solomon Islands  
 174 Pacific Islands (including New Caledonia, Samoa, Hawaii, and Fiji)  
 175 Australia and New Zealand (Brazier and Franklin region 77)  
 176 Australia  
 177 New Zealand  
 178 Tropical mainland Africa and adjacent islands (Brazier and Franklin region 78)  
 179 Tropical Africa  
 180 Madagascar & Mauritius, Réunion & Comores  
 181 Southern Africa (south of the Tropic of Capricorn) (Brazier and Franklin region 79)  
 182 North America, north of Mexico (Brazier and Franklin region 80)  
 183 Neotropics and temperate Brazil (Brazier and Franklin region 81)  
 184 Mexico and Central America  
 185 Carribean  
 186 Tropical South America  
 187 Southern Brazil  
 188 Temperate South America including Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, and S. Paraguay (Brazier and Franklin region 82)  
  Habit  
 189 Tree  
 190 Shrub  
 191 Vine / liana  
  Wood of commercial importance  
 192 Wood of commercial importance  
  Specific gravity  
 193 Basic specific gravity low, <= 0.40  
 194 Basic specific gravity medium, 0.40-0.75  
 195 Basic specific gravity high, >= 0.75  
  Heartwood colour  
 196 Heartwood colour darker than sapwood colour  
 197 Heartwood basically brown or shades of brown  
 198 Heartwood basically red or shades of red  
 199 Heartwood basically yellow or shades of yellow  
 200 Heartwood basically white to grey  
 201 Heartwood with streaks  
 202 Heartwood not as above  
  Odour  
 203 Distinct odour  
  Heartwood fluorescent  
 204 Heartwood flourescent  
  Water & ethanol extracts: fluorescence & colour  
 205 Water extract fluorescent  
 206 Water extract basically colourless to brown or shades of brown  
 207 Water extract basically red or shades of red  
 208 Water extract basically yellow or shades of yellow  
 209 Water extract not as above  
 210 Ethanol extract fluorescent  
 211 Ethanol extract basically colourless to brown or shades of brown  
 212 Ethanol extract basically red or shades of red  
 213 Ethanol extract basically yellow or shades of yellow  
 214 Ethanol extract not as above  
  Froth test  
 215 Froth test positive  
  Chrome Azurol-S test  
 216 Chrome Azurol-S test positive  
  Burning splinter test  
 217 Splinter burns to charcoal  
 218 Splinter burns to a full ash: Colour of ash bright white  
 219 Splinter burns to a full ash: Colour of ash yellow-brown  
 220 Splinter burns to a full ash: Colour of ash other than above  
 221 Splinter burns to a partial ash  
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